types of hockey

The game of hockey takes many forms, including those listed below:

Amputee Hockey

Standing/Amputee is played upright and follows typical ice hockey rules. Standing/Amputee Hockey has allowed a growing number of athletes with congenital or acquired amputations or other physical impairments to enjoy the great sport of hockey.  Players use prostheses to control a hockey stick or to skate, and these skills can be improved as with any other hockey skill.

There are many opportunities for Standing/Amputee Hockey players in local areas for recreation/competition all the way to international competition. Combining players with various types of disabilities creates a unique team experience in this fast-paced exciting sport.

Blind Hockey

The parasport of Blind Hockey is a variation of ice hockey for athletes who are blind or partially sighted. The sport uses some modified rules and equipment, most notably the adapted puck that makes noise and is larger than a traditional puck. At the recreational level all athletes must be visually impaired, while at the competitive level all players must be classified as legally blind, which is defined as having approximately ten percent vision or less.

While there is no rule limiting where a skater may or may not go on the ice, typically skaters with the most vision play forward and participate in all three zones, while skaters with less vision or no vision will play defense. In some cases, players with very little or no vision play the role of a true stay-at-home defenseman by participating only in their own end while communicating with their goalie to orient themselves on the ice. All goaltenders are extremely low vision or completely blind and wear a blindfold.

Deaf Hockey

Deaf/Hard of Hearing Hockey is for the individual who has been diagnosed with a hearing loss. The game is played according to USA Hockey rules and instruction is based on the individual players ability to improve their skills in an environment that is receptive to their needs and demands.

The ability to communicate with coaches and other players regardless of their method of communication is a huge focus. Whether a player utilizes sign language, lip reading, hearing aids, or cochlear implants, etc. interpreters are there to make sure they understand the instruction. Players receive instruction from a coaching staff with college, national and international experience.


Floorball is a fun, safe and fast-paced form of floor hockey developed in the 1970s in Europe. The game is played indoors on a gym floor with specialized lightweight sticks and rules that make game play much safer than traditional floor hockey. Floorball is played in more than 50 countries around the world and is governed by the International Floorball Federation, an organization with full recognition from the International Olympic Committee.

Floorball promotes end-to-end plays with quick transitions and fluid game play. The rules stress the importance of safety and sportsmanship and are designed to limit the chance of injury without decreasing the speed or skill of the game. The rules, in addition to the lightweight equipment, ensure that floorball is a welcoming and engaging sport for players of all hockey experience levels.

Ice Hockey

Ice hockey is a fast, fluid and exciting team sport featuring two teams of six players (a goaltender and five skaters) on ice. It draws big crowds all over the world thanks to the excitement and tension of the matches.

Ice hockey originated in Canada in the early 19th century, based on several similar sports played in Europe, although the word “hockey” comes from the old French word “hocquet”, meaning “stick”. Around 1860, a puck was substituted for a ball, and in 1879, two McGill University students, Robertson and Smith, devised the first rules.

The first recognised team, the McGill University Hockey Club, was formed in 1880 as hockey became the Canadian national sport and spread throughout the country. In 1892, the Governor General of Canada donated the Stanley Cup, which was first won by a team representing the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association.

Para Ice Hockey (formerly Sledge Hockey)

Para Ice Hockey is the Paralympic sport version of ice hockey. Para ice hockey (formerly sledge hockey) was added to the Paralympic Winter Games in 1994. It is a fast-paced, highly physical and played by male and female athletes with a physical impairment in the lower part of the body. Instead of skates, players use double-blade sledges that allow the puck to pass beneath. Players use two sticks, which have a spike-end for pushing and a blade-end for shooting. 

The goaltender may have an additional pick at the base end of his stick and may use an additional stick with a blade or wear a trapper glove. Games consist of three 15-minute stop-time periods.

PowerHockey and Powerchair Hockey

Powerhockey (also known as powerchair hockey outside of North America) is a parasport for individuals with physical disabilities that use a power wheelchair. The sport is inclusive by nature, allowing para-athletes of varying disabilities to participate together, regardless of gender or age. Para-athletes are able to compete to the best of their ability and excel in a competitive sports environment. Players who have enough strength hold their stick (typically a floorball stick) others play with a stick that is attached to the wheelchair called a T-stick. The ball is a synthetic, hollow, round, air-filled ball with holes, the same ball used for floor ball.

While the rules differ slightly between North American powerhockey and international powerchair hockey, the aim of the game remains the same!

Off the floor, the sport fosters lifelong friendships and relationships that cross borders, creating a strong, tight-knit community.

Special Olympics Floor Hockey

Special Olympics Floor Hockey is an indoor hockey game, played on a flat floor surface. Players on each team attempt to shoot a felt ring into a goal using a rubber tipped stick.

Street Hockey

For generations, street hockey has been a favourite cultural pastime for communities that love to play.

A social phenomenon, created by Indigenous peoples, woven into the fabric that holds Canada together from coast to coast.

Volt Hockey

Volt is a unique adaptation to the sport of hockey as it allows participants who have more complex needs – particularly those with limited upper mobility, to be able to play the sport that extends beyond other adaptive variations of hockey today (including sledge hockey and wheelchair hockey).

Volt is played as a 3 vs 3 game on an indoor gym or court using specially designed hockey sport chairs. The chairs are battery operated and are controlled with a joystick. This allows virtually any person living with mobility limitations the ability to play the sport of hockey independently.

Wheelchair Floorball

Wheelchair floorball is a dynamic and inclusive sport that allows individuals with disabilities to engage in a fast-paced and exciting game. The game is played on a regulation-sized floorball rink with two teams of six players each, including a goalkeeper. The players use specialized wheelchairs that are designed for maximum maneuverability and speed. The sticks used in wheelchair floorball are the same those used in traditional floorball.

Wheelchair floorball has been adapted to meet the needs of players with various disabilities, including those with spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, and amputations. The sport provides a level playing field for all players, regardless of their physical abilities, as the game is structured around a system of classifications that ensure fair competition.

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